|Title||Chapter 21 : Midwest. Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Angel, James R., Swanson Chris, Boustead Barbara Mayes, Conlon Kathryn, Hall Kimberly R., Jorns Jenna L., Kunkel Kenneth E., Lemos Maria Carmen, Lofgren Brent M., Ontl Todd, Posey John, Stone Kim, Takle Eugene, and Todey Dennis|
|Institution||U.S. Global Change Research Program|
|Keywords||adaptation, climate impacts, Fourth National Climate Assessment, Midwest, United States|
In general, climate change will tend to amplify existing climate-related risks to people, ecosystems, and infrastructure in the Midwest. Direct effects of increased heat stress, flooding, drought, and late spring freezes on natural and managed ecosystems may be multiplied by changes in pests and disease prevalence, increased competition from non-native or opportunistic native species, ecosystem disturbances, land-use change, landscape fragmentation, atmospheric pollutants, and economic shocks such as crop failures or reduced yields due to extreme weather events.
These added stresses, when taken collectively, are projected to alter the ecosystem and socioeconomic patterns and processes in ways that most people in the region would consider detrimental. Much of the region’s fisheries, recreation, tourism, and commerce depend on the Great Lakes and expansive northern forests, which already face pollution and invasive species pressure that will be exacerbated by climate change.